Anal route. © 2020 Pharmapproach Limited. The most important factors or requirements in all injection routes are the surrounding tissue or site must be as clean as possible, and all instruments used must be clean and sterile. Per os abbreviated to P.O. These advantages include safety, good patient compliance, ease of ingestion, pain avoidance, and versatility to accommodate various types of drugs (Sastry et al., 2000). There are _____ potential routes of drug administration. Parenteral drug administration. Sometimes a drug is given through the skin—by needle (subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous route), by patch (transdermal route), or by implantation. Injection or infusion of a drug that enters systemic circulation and bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Intravenous Route. The route of administration of a medication directly affects the drug bioavailability, which determines both the onset and the duration of the pharmacological effect. The drug is inhaled through the mouth and delivered into the lungs. Cutaneous Route Routes of Drug Administration: Dosage, Design, and Pharmacotherapy Success. Oral or Enteral Route: This is the most convenient route of drug administration when patients cooperate with the physicians. Here the drug is given from routes other than oral i.e. The important site of drug administration is the parenteral method, which includes all forms of injections. Read more on Oral Administration of Drugs:  Advantages and Disadvantages. In this route of administration, the drug is placed under the tongue (sublingual route) or between gums and inner lining of the cheek (buccal route). 7. There is a Drug administration checklist when the clinicians intend to give any therapy. The oral route of administration is the safest, most economical and the most convenient way of … glyceryl trinitrate SL tablet, Sublingual sprays e.g. tablets (immediate-release, enteric-coated, modified-release), capsules, granules, powders; Liquid dosage forms e.g. Routes of Drug Administration Practice Questions. The oral route is the most frequently used route for drug administration. When the systemic absorption of a drug is desired, medications are usually administered by two main routes: the enteral route and the parenteral route. Routes of Drug Administration If you require medication, for whatever ailment, when taking a medication due to whatever aliment, the drug administration can vary depending on various circumstances, for example, the desired effect of the medication, whether the medication is intended to be local (aimed at a specific areaof the body) or systemic (aimed at the whole body), as well as the … Whenever someone draws in on a cigarette, the smoke goes to the lungs and is then rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. Drugs administered through this route include fentanyl patches for severe pain management, nitroglycerin transdermal patch used to prevent episodes of angina in people who have coronary artery disease, nicotine patches for cessation of smoking, etc. In book: ADME Processes in Pharmaceutical Sciences (pp.97-133) 1. We create and share clinical content that is accessible, engaging and concise. For small therapeutic molecules, various routes for drug administration are parenteral (intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous), oral, nasal, ocular, transmucosal (buccal, vaginal, and rectal), and transdermal. Applicable in cases of nausea, vomiting, and inability to swallow (unconscious patients), as well as in the presence of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract that affect oral drug absorption. is sometimes used as a direction for medication to be taken orally. Health and safety and clinical risk management 47 9. This is the second commonest route of drug administration. Right Patient , Right Drug, Right Dose, Right Route & Dosage form Right Time, Right Documentation After the diagnosis of the disease when the clinicians come down to the treatment of the patient with a Drug with an appropriate dose, what comes in the mind of the… The oral route is considered as the first choice of route of drug administration as it is most convenient, cheap and usually a safe method of drug administration. Sub-lingual route. In this guide, we summarise the most common routes used to administer drugs, the advantages and disadvantages of each drug route and examples of dosage forms that are used to deliver the active drug to the intended site of action in the body. Also, this route can be used for systemic drug administration in addition to the local administration. The route of drug administration is simply defined as the path by which a drug is taken into the body for diagnosis, prevention, cure or treatment of various diseases and disorders. The principal method of giving drugs is by mouth (oral route), and doses which are not otherwise specified are assumed to be oral doses. Dec 22, 2020 (Heraldkeepers) -- Pharmaceutical drug delivery ensures absorption of drug, increased efficacy and better patient experience. Routes of medication administration Oral route ( also called peroral) In this route, as the name indicates, the drug is taken by mouth. salbutamol sulphate inhaler). ointments, creams, liquids, powders, solutions, shampoos, Systemic side effects/drug interactions avoided or reduced, Some preparations may be messy or difficult to apply, Some dermatological preparations are time-consuming to apply, Adverse drug reactions to excipients contained in the dosage form, May be difficult for some patients to administer themselves, This route may be considered time-consuming by the patient as they need to remain on their side/tilt the ear for a few minutes after instillation of ear drops, May cause temporary blurring of vision upon instillation of eye drops/ointment, Barriers to administration e.g. Drug Administration and Drug Mathematics. Aguwa, C. and Akah, P. (2006). Oral Route: 1. 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